Embracing Person-Centered Care: A Journey to the Heart of Older Adult Individuality Through Care


Picture a world where the care we give our older adults is as varied and vibrant as their own life stories. This is the promise of person-centered care (PCC)—a philosophy that paints every older adult’s care with the brush of their unique preferences, histories, and dreams. As we step into this world, we find ourselves at a crossroads. While the merits of PCC light the way, there lies a gap wide and deep—the caregivers and healthcare providers, the unsung heroes in the lives of our older adults, are reaching out for the tools and knowledge to turn this promise into practice. This article unfolds the reality of PCC, exploring the vibrant potential it holds for older adults and the collective effort needed to climb the learning curve and infuse every act of care with deep personal significance.

The Heart of Person-Centered Care

Person-centered care (PCC) revolves around a simple yet powerful idea: every older adult is unique, with their own set of preferences, life stories, and needs. This approach is about recognizing and respecting these differences to provide care that’s tailored to each individual.

A significant challenge in implementing PCC, as highlighted in a systematic review by BMC Geriatrics, is that many who provide care to older adults—be it healthcare providers or caregivers—often lack the necessary knowledge and skills for this specialized approach. The review points out, “Older people, healthcare providers, and caregivers lack professional knowledge and skills to implement effective PCC”​​. This statement is a wake-up call, emphasizing the need for more comprehensive training and education in PCC.

So you may be asking yourself why is this training important? Imagine an older adult person who loves music. In a PCC model, caregivers would integrate music into their daily care, perhaps by playing their favorite songs or encouraging musical activities. This is PCC in action— aligning care with personal likes and histories. However, without proper training in PCC principles, caregivers might miss these opportunities to connect care with personal interests.

Take, for example, the case of an older adult with a deep love for gardening. In a PCC approach, caregivers and healthcare providers would recognize this passion and find ways to integrate it into her daily care routine, perhaps by ensuring she has access to a garden or bringing potted plants for her to tend. This not only honors her individuality but also promotes emotional and mental well-being.

Similarly, consider a scenario where an older adult individual strongly values independence. In this case, PCC would focus on empowering him with choices in his daily routine, from selecting meals to deciding on his activity schedule, thereby respecting and upholding his desire for autonomy.

However, to effectively implement such personalized care, a significant gap needs to be bridged. The lack of professional knowledge and skills in PCC, as highlighted by the BMC Geriatrics review, suggests that caregivers and healthcare providers often find themselves unprepared to deliver such nuanced and individualized care.

To address this, there is a need for targeted training programs that not only educate caregivers about the principles of PCC but also equip them with practical tools to apply these principles. This could include training in communication skills to better understand each older adult’s preferences, workshops on creative problem-solving to tailor care plans, and even courses on cultural competence to ensure caregivers are sensitive to the diverse backgrounds of the older adults they serve.

In essence, the heart of person-centered care beats to the rhythm of individuality, calling for a healthcare paradigm shift that sees and treats each older person not just as a patient, but as a unique individual with their own story, preferences, and dignity.

The Six Domains of Person-Centered Care

The concept of person-centered care (PCC) is not a one-dimensional approach but rather encompasses multiple facets that together form a comprehensive model of care. Alexis Coulourides Kogan and colleagues, through their extensive literature review, have distilled PCC into six key domains: holistic care, respect, choice, dignity, self-determination, and purposeful living​​.

  1. Holistic Care: This domain involves addressing not just the physical health needs of older adults but also their mental, emotional, and social well-being. For example, a holistic care plan for an older adult might include regular physical exercise, mental stimulation activities like puzzles or reading, and social interactions through community programs.
  2. Respect: Respecting older adults means acknowledging their life experiences and treating them with the dignity they deserve. This could be as simple as caregivers taking the time to listen to their stories or ensuring their opinions are considered in everyday decisions.
  3. Choice: Empowering the older adult with choices in their daily lives is crucial. This can range from choosing what to wear each day to making decisions about their care plans or activities they wish to participate in.
  4. Dignity: Maintaining the dignity of older adults involves actions like ensuring privacy during medical treatments or personal care activities, and addressing them respectfully.
  5. Self-Determination: This is about enabling the older adult to have a say in how they live their lives. For instance, allowing them to decide their daily routine or involving them in setting goals for their health and care.
  6. Purposeful Living: Helping older adults find purpose and joy in their lives is essential. This could be through encouraging hobbies, facilitating participation in community events, or even providing opportunities for volunteering.

These six domains emphasize a care approach that is deeply rooted in empathy, understanding, and collaboration between caregivers, healthcare providers, and the older adults themselves. By incorporating these domains into care practices, we can ensure a more respectful, dignified, and fulfilling experience for our aging population.

Challenges in Implementation

Implementing person-centered care (PCC) comes with its own set of challenges, despite its clear benefits. The BMC Geriatrics study has identified some key barriers that can make it often challenging to put PCC into practice effectively.

  1. Lack of Knowledge and Skills: Many caregivers and healthcare providers simply don’t have enough training in PCC. For instance, a caregiver might not know how to create a care plan that truly reflects an older adult’s interests and preferences. They might be used to a standard routine that doesn’t consider what the older adult actually enjoys or finds meaningful.
  2. Negative Attitudes Towards Shared Decision-Making: Another challenge is a reluctance to involve older adults in decisions about their own care. Think of a situation where healthcare decisions are made without consulting the older adult it affects. This goes against the PCC principle of respecting and valuing the individual’s choices.

To overcome these obstacles, a collective effort is needed. This means training caregivers, professionals who engage and interact with older adults to understand and apply PCC principles in their daily work. For example, a training program could include workshops on how to communicate effectively with older adults and involve them in decision-making, or it could offer guidance on developing care plans that align with an individual’s unique needs and preferences.

Additionally, the overall older adult care system needs to support this shift towards PCC. This could involve policy changes, like requiring PCC training for certification, or providing resources to older adult care providers to help them adopt a more person-centered approach.

By addressing these challenges head-on, we can make PCC not just an ideal to strive for, but a reality in the care of older adults. This will not only improve the quality of care but also ensure that the care is respectful, dignified, and tailored to each individual’s needs.

Benefits: A Dual Advantage

The concept of person-centered care (PCC) offers significant benefits that extend beyond the well-being of older adults to positively impact those caring for them.

It’s often discovered that PCC not only improves the quality of life for older adults but also enhances satisfaction for caregivers and families. Let’s unpack this concept with a real-world example of how the benefits of PCC can often extend beyond the older adults being cared for:

  1. For Older Adults: Imagine an older woman named Joan who loves painting. In a PCC approach, her care plan would include time for her to paint, maybe even organizing visits to local art galleries. This not only brings joy to her daily life but also encourages mental engagement and emotional expression, directly improving her quality of life.
  2. For Caregivers: On the other side, there’s Mike, one of Joan’s caregivers. By helping Joan with her painting, he feels a sense of fulfillment and pride in his work. He’s not just performing tasks; he’s making a real difference in someone’s life. This job satisfaction is a key aspect of PCC—it can lead to lower turnover rates among staff and a more positive work environment.
  3. For Families: Joan’s family members are also impacted. Seeing Joan’s spirits uplifted through her personalized care, they feel more at ease and confident in the care she’s receiving. They can enjoy their time with Joan, knowing that her individual needs and passions are being honored and encouraged.

This “dual advantage” means that PCC is beneficial for everyone involved. Older adults like Joan live a life that’s still full of the activities and choices they love. Caregivers like Mike enjoy more meaningful work. And families are assured that their loved ones are cared for with dignity and respect, echoing the holistic impact of PCC.

The Future of Older Adult Care

Looking forward, it’s essential that those caring for and engaging with older adults embrace the principles of person-centered care (PCC). To make this happen, we need a clear and common understanding of what PCC means and what it requires—like a recipe that all caregivers, older adult care professionals and health professionals can follow.

For example, picture a GPS system for older adult care. Just as a GPS guides you to your destination, a standardized definition of PCC would guide caregivers in providing the right kind of support. This would be a set of clear directions that every care professional could use to ensure that every older adult, like Mr. Thompson who lives with diabetes and loves jazz music, receives care that keeps him healthy while also allowing him to enjoy his favorite music every day.

And what about the essential elements? Think of these like the main ingredients in a dish. The literature review by Kogan and colleagues suggests we need to identify these “ingredients” for good older adult care. For Mr. Thompson, this could mean making sure his dietary plan for diabetes includes his preferred flavors, or that his exercise routine is set to the rhythm of Louis Armstrong.

This approach acts as a transformational roadmap, ensuring that older adults care systems can consistently deliver care that’s not only medically sound but also personalized to each individual’s life and joys. This way, older adult care can be a journey that respects each person’s preferences and needs, making the experience as comfortable and joyful as possible for them and their families.

Conclusion: Embracing the Full Spectrum of Elderly Care

As the narrative of older adult care unfolds, PCC stands out as the thread that weaves personal identity into the fabric of care. It’s a vibrant mosaic that comes alive when every piece—every older adult’s wish and will—is placed with intention and care. The challenge before us is not insurmountable; it’s an invitation to enrich our skills, to turn empathy into action, and to ensure that the journey through one’s twilight years is as respected and cherished as the decades that came before. Together, we stand on the brink of a care revolution, one where the joy and autonomy of older adults become the touchstone of quality care. Let’s step forward, forging a path where each older adult’s story guides our hands and hearts in their care.


  1. BMC Geriatrics. (2023). Experiences of older people, healthcare providers and caregivers on implementing person-centered care for community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis. BMC Geriatrics. Retrieved January 25, 2024, from https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877-023-03915-0 .
  2. Kogan, A. C., Wilber, K., & Mosqueda, L. (2015). Person-Centered Care for Older Adults with Chronic Conditions and Functional Impairment: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13873

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